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Understanding Buddhist Scriptures
Our agents will determine if the content reported is inappropriate or not based on the guidelines provided and will then take action where needed. Thank you for notifying us. The page you are attempting to access contains content that is not intended for underage readers. This item has not been rated yet. Some of Buddhism's most important works are brought together in this monumental work.
As true today as they have ever been. An insightful and meaningful collection of literature about the Buddhist path. This is the book that introduced Jack Kerouac to Buddhism. Originally published in and now available via Lulu.
An Overview of Buddhist Scriptures
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There are no reviews for the current version of this product Refreshing There are no reviews for previous versions of this product. First Name. Last Name. The Tibetan Kangyur, which belongs to the various schools of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism, in addition to containing sutras and vinaya, also contains tantras. As Buddhism spread geographically, these texts were translated into the local language, such as Chinese and Tibetan. The Pali canon was preserved in Sri Lanka where it was first written down in the first century BCE and the Theravadan Pali textual tradition developed there.
Important examples of non-canonical Pali texts are the Visuddhimagga , by Buddhaghosa , which is a compendium of Theravada teachings and the Mahavamsa , a historical Sri Lankan chronicle. The earliest known Buddhist manuscripts , recovered from the ancient civilization of Gandhara in north central Pakistan near Taxila just south west of the capital Islamabad are dated to the 1st century and constitute the Buddhist textual tradition of Gandharan Buddhism which was an important link between Indian and East Asian Buddhism.
After the rise of the Kushans in India, Sanskrit was also widely used to record Buddhist texts. Sanskrit Buddhist literature later became the dominant tradition in India until the decline of Buddhism in India. The Mahayana sutras are traditionally considered by Mahayanists to be the word of the Buddha, but transmitted either in secret, via lineages of supernatural beings such as the nagas , or revealed directly from other Buddhas or bodhisattvas.
In the Mahayana tradition there are important works termed Shastras , or treatises which attempt to outline the sutra teachings and defend or expand on them. The works of important Buddhist philosophers like Nagarjuna , Vasubandhu and Dharmakirti are generally termed Shastras, and were written in Sanskrit. The late Seventh century saw the rise of another new class of Buddhist texts, the Tantras , which outlined new ritual practices and yogic techniques such as the use of Mandalas , Mudras and Fire sacrifices.
The division of texts into the traditional three yanas may obscure the process of development that went on, and there is some overlap in the traditional classifications. For instance, there are so-called proto-Mahayana texts, such as the Ajitasena Sutra , which are missing key features that are associated with Mahayana texts.
Some Pali texts also contain ideas that later became synonymous with the Mahayana. At least some editions of the Kangyur include the Heart Sutra in the tantra division. Some Buddhist texts evolved to become a virtual canon in themselves, and are referred to as vaipulya or extensive sutras. The Flower Garland Sutra is an example of a single sutra made up of other sutras, many of which, particularly the Gandavyuha Sutra still circulate as separate texts. Tibetan Buddhism has a unique and special class of texts called terma Tibetan: gTer-ma. These are texts or ritual objects, etc. Many of the terma texts are said to have been written by Padmasambhava , who is particularly important to the Nyingmas.
Probably the best known terma text is the so-called Tibetan book of the dead , the Bardo Thodol. The Chinese Buddhist canon contains a complete collection of early sutras in Chinese translation, their content is very similar to the Pali, differing in detail but not in the core doctrinal content. Parts of what is likely to be the canon of the Dharmaguptaka can be found amongst the Gandharan Buddhist Texts. Several early versions of the Vinaya Pitaka from various schools are also kept in the Chinese Mahayana Canon. The vinaya literature is primarily concerned with aspects of the monastic discipline.
However, vinaya as a term is also contrasted with Dharma, where the pair Dhamma-Vinaya mean something like 'doctrine and discipline'. The vinaya literature in fact contains a considerable range of texts. There are, of course, those that discuss the monastic rules, how they came about, how they developed, and how they were applied. But the vinaya also contains some doctrinal expositions, ritual and liturgical texts, biographical stories, and some elements of the " Jatakas ", or birth stories. Paradoxically, the text most closely associated with the vinaya, and the most frequently used portion of it, the Pratimoksha , is in itself not a canonical text in Theravada, even though almost all of it can be found in the canon.
This doctrine was later taken up by the Mahayana in a modified form as Vasubandhu 's Ten Stages Sutra. The Sutras Sanskrit ; Pali Sutta are mostly discourses attributed to the Buddha or one of his close disciples. They are all, even those not actually spoken by him, considered to be Buddhavacana , the word of the Buddha, just as in the case of all canonical literature. The Buddha's discourses were perhaps originally organised according to the style in which they were delivered. There were originally nine, but later twelve, of these.
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The Sanskrit forms are:. The first nine are listed in all surviving agamas, with the other three added in some later sources. In Theravada, at least, they are regarded as a classification of the whole of the scriptures, not just suttas. The scheme is also found in Mahayana texts. However, some time later a new organizational scheme was imposed on the canon, which is now the most familiar. The scheme organises the suttas into:.
These range in length up to 95 pages. These are the rest of the sutras of any length, and the Pali Majjhima Nikaya has suttas. This grouping consists of many short texts connected by theme, setting, or interlocutor. The Pali Samyutta Nikaya contains more than 2, sutras. Sutras with the same number of doctrinal items, comprise over 2, suttas in the Pali Anguttara Nikaya.
Not all schools had this category, but the Pali Khuddaka Nikaya has several well-known and loved texts, including:. Many of these texts are available in translation as well as in the original language. The Dhammapada, for instance, has a Pali version, three Chinese versions, a Tibetan version, and a Khotanese version. Abhidharma in Pali , Abhidhamma means 'further Dharma' and is concerned with the analysis of phenomena. It grew initially out of various lists of teachings such as the 37 Factors leading to Awakening.
The Abhidharma literature is chiefly concerned with the analysis of phenomena and the relationships between them. Outside of the Theravada monasteries the Pali Abhidharma texts are not well known. Not all schools accepted the Abhidharma as canonical. The rejection by some schools that dharmas i. It is a compendium of doctrine, and covers a range of subjects. It is included in some editions of the Pali Canon. Other early texts which are usually not considered 'canonical' are the Nettipakarana and the Petakopadesa — "The Book of Guidance" and "Instruction on the Pitaka".
They were mostly the work of Buddhist Yoga teachers from Kashmir and were influential in Chinese Buddhism. The Pali texts have an extensive commentarial literature much of which is still untranslated. There are also sub-commentaries tikka or commentaries on the commentaries. Buddhaghosa was also the author of the Visuddhimagga , or Path of Purification , which is a manual of doctrine and practice according to the Mahavihara tradition of Sri Lanka and according to Nanamoli Bhikkhu is regarded as "the principal non-canonical authority of the Theravada.gelatocottage.sg/includes/2020-03-07/2975.php
Another highly influential Pali Theravada work is the Abhidhammattha-sangaha 11th or 12th century , a short introductory summary to the Abhidhamma. Buddhaghosa is known to have worked from Buddhist commentaries in the Sri Lankan Sinhala language , which are now lost. There are numerous Tantric Theravada texts, mostly from Southeast Asia.
Burmese Buddhist literature developed unique poetic forms form the s onwards, a major type of poetry is the pyui' long and embellished translations of Pali Buddhist works, mainly jatakas. A famous example of pyui' poetry is the Kui khan pyui' the pyui' in nine sections, Burmese commentaries or nissayas and were used to teach Pali.
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See Mahayana Sutras for historical background and a list of some sutras categorised by source. Wisdom in this context means the ability to see reality as it truly is. The Abhidhamma-pitaka is a work of analysis and philosophy that is attributed to the Buddha but probably was written a couple of centuries after his Parinirvana. The Theravadin Pali Tipitika are all in the Pali language.
There are versions of these same texts that were recorded in Sanskrit, also, although most of what we have of these are Chinese translations of lost Sanskrit originals.