A clear line must be drawn between the defense of individual or ethnic representation and ethnic affiliation. No Pashtun should defend any action of the Taliban during their reign of power by virtue of their ethnic affiliation, nor should any Tajik, Hazara, or Uzbek be held responsible to defend the actions of the leaders claiming affiliation with their respective ethnic communities.
But if eligibility to participate in national politics is denied to any party because of its blemished record, such criterion should be applied across the board. If there is ever going to be a trial in an independent Afghan court for treason and aiding and abiding foreign invaders, or in the International Court of Justice or the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity, the people of Afghanistan will have plenty to say including, but not limited to , the following:.
In short, very few parties, foreign or domestic, will escape unscathed from charges of inflicting pain and suffering on the people of Afghanistan during the three and a half decade long nightmare. Nadery on the spot. Nadery would actually be too mild a punishment. But until that day arrives, if it ever does, or if alternatively a South African-style Truth and Reconciliation Commission is established, it is incumbent upon people of conscience to measure the severity of the crime by the suffering of the victims and not by the claims of the perpetrators.
We will not find comfort in defending the stance of our favorite political alliances and ethnic affiliations, but we may find solace in addressing the commission of these crimes against humanity at the highest level of our humanity if we can rise to that level. Featured Publication view What does the Saudi oil facility attack mean for Russia?
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Full Page view Annual Awards Gala. The Northern Alliance may be charged with targeting civilians in their turf battles in Kabul subjecting the residents of the capital to ethnic cleansing, gang rapes of targeted ethnic neighborhoods as collective punishment, and the murder and mayhem that resulted in the death of more than 60, residents turning Kabul into the Dresden and Grozny of Afghanistan.
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Welcome, Guest Login Create Account. Stay Connected. By George Sheppard. Request Course Adoption. All fields required. Email Print Add to Wishlist. Overview Reviews Author Bio The War of is often credited with having aroused fierce anti-American sentiment among Upper Canadians, creating a unity which ensured continued loyalty to Britain and played an important role in the defence of the colony.
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It is also claimed that all of Upper Canada benefited from British military spending, setting the province on a course towards prosperity. In this revisionist history George Sheppard challenges these assumptions. Sheppard demonstrates that the colony was a fragmented and pluralistic community before the war and remained so after it.
Upper Canadians were divided by racial, religious, linguistic, and class differences and the majority of settlers had no strong ties to either the United States or Britain, with most men avoiding military service during the war.
Reviewing the claims submitted for damages attributed to the fighting, he argues that British forces as well as enemy troops were responsible for widespread destruction of private property and concludes that this explains why there was little increase in anti-American feeling after the war. Much of the wartime damage occurred in areas west of York now Toronto. This was the cause of grievances harboured by settlers in the western part of Upper Canada against their eastern counterparts long after the war had ended.