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To an excellent approximation, the Sun keeps not only Earth, but all the planets at a temperature well above what they'd be without it: just a few Kelvin. During the day, the planets absorb energy from the Sun, but during both the day and the night, they radiate energy back into space.

Orbits of the inner and outer planets. Hurt, modified by E.

Venus not our closest neighbor in the solar system, new study reveals - Business Insider

Perhaps a gas giant that was large enough to generate a significant fraction of its own heat would change that order if Jupiter and Neptune were swapped, this might be the case , but in general we'd expect a planet's temperature to drop in proportion to its distance from the Sun. We can check this expectation by starting at the innermost planet and working our way outwards. Mercury is hot. Natural color image of Venus from Mariner 10 data.

It also rotates even slower than Mercury, spending more than consecutive Earth-days at a time bathed in sunlight and then an equal amount of time in darkness. This strange occurrence did more than just puzzle astronomers when they first discovered it; it mortified them! Venus wasn't large enough to generate its own heat, and yet it was hotter at Venusian midnight than at Mercurian high noon. This was an observation that cried out for an explanation, and so we began contrasting the two innermost planets.

Relative sizes and distances to scale, but not simultaneously of the inner planets of the Solar System. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons user Jonathan Chone, under a c. Planets absorb sunlight based on their cross-sectional surface area -- proportional to their radius squared -- and radiate it away in the exact same proportion.

This difference is completely irrelevant. The brightness distance relationship, and how the flux from a light falls off as one over the distance squared. Answers Earth's Atmosphere Label the atmospheric layers of the Earth. Answers Earth Diagram Label the inside of the Earth.

Answers Celsius Bar Graph Questions 2: Printable Worksheet A printable activity worksheet in which the student reads a bar graph of the average temperatures of the planets to answer questions, for example, "On average, is it warmer on Jupiter or Mars? Go to a pdf version of the worksheet. Moon Phases Diagram Label the phases of the waxing and waning moon.

Answers Lunar Eclipse Diagram Label the lunar eclipse. Answers Planet-Sun Orbital Diagram Label the aphelion farthest point in orbit and perihelion closest point in orbit of a planet in orbit. Go to the answers. Printout Label the Solar System in English. Printout Label the Solar System in French. Printout Label the Solar System in German. Printout Label the Solar System in Italian.

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Printout Label the Solar System in Spanish. Inside Uranus. Planets Quiz. Today's featured page: Compass Rose Printout.

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Printables, Worksheets, and Activities. The Planets. The Moon. Kuiper Belt. The average Earth-Sun distance, which originally defined the astronomical unit AU , provides a convenient measure for distances within the solar system. Mercury, at 0.

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Most of the mass of the solar system is concentrated in the Sun, with its 1. Together, all of the planets amount to 2. The solar system also contains five known objects of intermediate size classified as dwarf planets and a very large number of much smaller objects collectively called small bodies.

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The small bodies, roughly in order of decreasing size, are the asteroids , or minor planets; comets , including Kuiper belt , Centaur , and Oort cloud objects; meteoroids ; and interplanetary dust particles. Because of their starlike appearance when discovered, the largest of these bodies were termed asteroids , and that name is widely used, but, now that the rocky nature of these bodies is understood, their more descriptive name is minor planets.

The four inner, terrestrial planets—Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars—along with the Moon have average densities in the range of 3. The compositions of these two groups of planets must therefore be significantly different. This dissimilarity is thought to be attributable to conditions that prevailed during the early development of the solar system see below Theories of origin.

These are average temperatures; large variations exist between dayside and nightside for planets closest to the Sun, except for Venus with its thick atmosphere.


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  • The surfaces of the terrestrial planets and many satellites show extensive cratering, produced by high-speed impacts see meteorite crater. On Earth, with its large quantities of water and an active atmosphere , many of these cosmic footprints have eroded , but remnants of very large craters can be seen in aerial and spacecraft photographs of the terrestrial surface.

    On Mercury, Mars, and the Moon , the absence of water and any significant atmosphere has left the craters unchanged for billions of years, apart from disturbances produced by infrequent later impacts.

    Volcanic activity has been an important force in the shaping of the surfaces of the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Seismic activity on the Moon has been monitored by means of seismometers left on its surface by Apollo astronauts and by Lunokhod robotic rovers.