Cyber-physical systems in IIoT and Fog computing can use a variety of standards to guarantee real-time communication, based on enhanced switches with quality-of-service, audio-video bridging, time-triggered Ethernet and time-sensitive networking features.
Modeling and Verification of Time-Triggered Communication Protocols
However, such real-time enabled network switches often come at a high design and maintenance cost. This paper explores the feasibility of source time-triggered communication over a standard Ethernet switch without enhanced capabilities and demonstrates the minimum requirements of a system needed to enable time-triggered communication.
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To achieve deterministic communication and synchronous operation of the tasks, the worst-case execution time of the tasks is analyzed and a static schedule is defined. We use the IEEE Precise Time Protocol to provide a global time reference for the network devices and time-triggered messages are scheduled at the source nodes.
We have applied our model and used our scheduling method on a non-trivial set of messages designed to be representative for a real application. The message set consists of 65 different messages, divided into three classes based on their respective timing requirements.
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We describe our method as well as our results. Dependable Embedded Systems are an enabling technology for a huge set of critical technical applications, eg in automotive, aerospace, railways and other transportation systems, industrial automation and process control, medical systems and the like, where hard real-time requirements have to be met in a dependable, predictable manner, because people's life may depend on the services provided by this critical systems, subsystems and components.
At the moment, sectoral or proprietory solutions are the basis of highly dependable systems, and systems are designed case-by-case almost from scratch. The Challenge The challenge is to facilitate the systematic design of large dependable control systems out of components.
Time-Triggered Protocol (TTP) - TTTech
The mission is to develop a basic methodology and technology which allows to significantly reduce the design, deployment and life-cycle cost of critical embedded applications. A crucial part of the problem is the interaction of the components which is realized by the exchange of messages across linking interfaces LIFs to a real-time communication system.
The driving forces for the composition of a large System of Systems SOS out of a set of components component systems are:. Silicon Trend and New Failure Modes The trend for systems capable of cost-efficient mass-deployment leads to 'Systems on a Chip SOC ', where at the end of the day complete nodes of a distributed system are on a single die. According to semiconductor industry studies, the further shrinkage of silicon building blocks is still progressing.
The further shrinkage leads to new failure modes of SOC, such as:. It is expected that in future the rate for permanent failures will remain unchanged, but that the rate for intermittent and transient failures will increase.
Therefore, the assumption that a fail-silent node can be implemented on a single die that hosts two independent FCUs is not sustainable in future high-dependability applications, which severely influences system architectures and composability of embedded SoS. What is a Component? In the abstract, a component is an encapsulated building block that is of use when building a large system.